Nicholas I

   Pope (q.v.) from 858-867 whose interference in the affairs of the eastern church triggered a crisis between the churches. It began with Nicholas's refusal to agree to Michael III's deposition of Patriarch Ignatios (qq.v.) in favor of Photios (q.v.). In 863 Nicholas declared that Ignatios was restored. The pope also competed for the ecclesiastical allegiance of the Bulgars (q.v.) through correspondence with Boris I of Bulgaria (qq.v.), and entertained Cyril and Methodios in Rome (qq.v.). In 867 a council in Constantinople (q.v.) declared Nicholas I excommunicated and deposed. The council also rejected the Roman church's doctrine offilioque (q.v.).

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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